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University of Salford


EBLIP6, 27-30 June 2011, England, UK

Posters

 

A proposed collaboration between palliative care educators and hospice librarians in South East England to support evidence based practice and education

Objective
This paper relates to a proposed collaboration between Palliative Care Educators and Hospice Librarians in South East England to support evidence based practice and education.The National Association of Palliative Care Educators (NAPCE) provides a forum for debate, support and the sharing of good practice for palliative care educators of all professions. The position of hospice librarians is not clear cut. There is no professional group such as those run by the Chartered Institute of Librarians and Information Professionals and for the most part hospice librarians have no formal library qualifications. Though hospice librarians are often responsible for supporting clinical practice by providing evidence from research, there is no formal link between librarians and educators, even within individual hospices.At St Catherine’s Hospice, Crawley, West Sussex, the Librarian Assistant works closely with the Hospice Educators to provide evidence to support research proposals at the hospice, reading materials supporting education programmes, information and research for hospice staff undertaking university courses, and identifies helpful topics from news items and social media.

Methods
A lecturer practitioner at St Catherine's Hospice, currently Chair of the South East NAPCE group, and the writer, librarian assistant at St Catherine’s, discussed the way collaborative working has arisen between the education team at St Catherine’s in contrast to how other hospice education teams work. It was proposed that the writer should attend a meeting of the South East NAPCE to discuss how an association between NAPCE and librarians could benefit both groups. At such a meeting, the writer proposed that the group invite librarians to join them.The purpose would be to enable closer working and collaboration between hospice educators and hospice librarians, both within organisations and across the region. The rationale: · Recognise coming trends in palliative care education· Identify resources, including e-learning/on-line, that support teaching and learning· Provide guidance/updates on new literature and research · Focus on partnership working Options include: evaluating current practice and perceived shortfalls to establish gaps in service provision and to provide a benchmark for future measurement of the impact of librarians upon a hospice education team and service. This has been relayed to local librarians who are keen to share their knowledge and expertise and to be more closely involved with education at their own hospices. The writer’s perception from these discussions is that some hospice librarians feel they are not part of the hospice education team, in contrast to the writer's experience.

Results
The writer hopes to see that such a collaboration would result in a more effective joining of library resources and educational activity to ensure an evidence base to both teaching and library practice. It is hoped this will lead to improved patient care at the end of life as education and library input enhance good evidence based clinical practice.

Conclusion
If it is found that joint working between librarians and educators does indeed enhance the delivery of end of life care, then it is proposed that a model of partnership working could be developed to extend this approach.


Joanna Tuck, St Catherine's Hospice, United Kingdom
Joanna Tuck

Joanna Tuck is the Librarian at St Catherine's Hospice, Crawley, having previously practiced as a solicitor. In addition to providing access to books and journals for staff and volunteers, course materials for onsite training, training in literature searching, and support for staff and volunteers undertaking higher level degree and diploma courses, Joanna works closely with the Head of Education and Lecturer Practitioners to support research projects by hospice staff and evidence based practice development. Joanna also manages the Education website, provides support for other St Catherine's web managers and has a keen interest in Web 2.0 developments.



A student usage survey as tool for collection management

Objective
Collection building should be based on realistic usage data. Therefore students of the faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences of the University of Ghent were sent a survey to determine their actual usage of the student-oriented information resources and their wishes for improvement. This can make a solid base on which we can build a strategic plan that can offer quality service to an important segment of our customers within a framework of the actual financial restraints imposed on library services. The survey data were matched to the subscription costs and the interlibrary loan needs.

Methods
First some questions were defined. Is our collection student-oriented ? Does the user know the content of our collection and does he find what he needs?
To answer these questions we analysed 3 different enquiries of usage:
• A usage survey among all students of our faculty that gave information about the profile of the respondents, their usage of the collection and the reasons of using certain information sources (used in curriculum or not).
• The usage statistics (mainly PDF-downloads) provided by the publishers.
• The statistics of external demands of interlibrary loan.
Finally the results of the different enquiries were analysed and discussed with different departments, specialists and partners.

Results
Frequent users of the library compound were more eager to participate in the survey. The usage of electronic resources is consistent with the sources used in the curricula and the instructed search strategies.
User statistics by the publishers do not match the financial costs of a given subscription. Interlibrary loan requests are often more cost-effective than subscriptions given the low number of downloads.
The analysis of the usage statistics of electronic archive collections indicated the need for additional subscriptions.
It became obvious from the survey that many resources are insufficiently known by students. This is the case for both journal subscriptions and bibliographic databases and search strategies.

Conclusion
Collection management should be based on evidence. Surveys of selected customers needs and usage will provide essential data for evidence-based practice in library and information management.


Ann De Meulemeester, University of Ghent, Belgium
Ann De Meulemeester

Ann De Meulemeesteris a Librarian at the Biomedical faculty library of the University of Ghent (Belgium), which is responsible for the faculty of Medicine, the Faculty of Pharmacy and the University Hospital of Ghent. She has a master in Library and Information Sciences. Her main research interests are information literacy and information behavior. She aims a sustainable integration within the medical and biomedical curricula. She is webmaster and newsletter editor of the Health and Bioscience Section of IFLA and an active member in the section scientific libraries of the Flemish Library Association (VVBAD).


Henri Verhaaren, University of Ghent, Belgium
Henri Verhaaren

Henri Verhaaren



Barriers and facilitators to research use: the role of library and information services

Objective
Despite considerable progress in applied research for the management of alcohol and drug problems, a gap between evidence and practice persists. This disparity points to significant barriers to research use among frontline practitioners. Library and information service (LIS) personnel collect, organise and disseminate research so may be uniquely positioned to be of influence.
This study aimed to identify barriers to research use among allied health practitioners working in the alcohol and drugs area in Ireland, and explore the information services, strategies and resources that may help alleviate these issues.

Methods
Three focus groups were held with practitioners undertaking addiction studies. A survey questionnaire was then sent to 175 counsellors in Ireland. The response rate was 41% (n=71). The survey included the Barriers to Research Utilization Scale (Funk et al., 1991), which assessed the importance of 29 potential barriers under four factors: practitioner, setting, qualities of the research, and communication. Participants were also asked to assess the utility of proposed information services and training.

Results
Findings showed that all communication-related Scale items, and some items associated with the setting and practitioner, were perceived to be a moderate or great barrier by the majority of respondents. Similar issues were raised in focus groups, where language and presentation; time to engage with research; and relevancy were considered significant influences. However, qualitative aspects of the study also revealed greater scepticism toward research application and relevance; indicating the importance of a blended approach to data collection.
Survey findings also showed that the majority of respondents had access to the internet at work (76%), and were positive about the support they receive from their manager to engage in finding evidence (59%) and training courses (64%) during work hours. Seven out of the eight proposed information services were rated as moderate or great facilitators by the majority of respondents. Advanced information-searching skills (49%) and critical analysis of research (45%) were chosen as the most popular training options.

Conclusion
The high incidence of communication-related issues among top barriers and the enthusiasm expressed towards proposed information services and training revealed the key role that LIS personnel can play in enabling practitioners to use research in practice. The addition of setting and practitioner factors indicated that a holistic, collaborative approach to promote the effective use of research collections and resources is required.
Funk, S. G., Champagne, M.T., Wiese, R.A. & Tornquist, E.M. (1991). BARRIERS: The barriers to research utilization scale. Applied Nursing Research, 4(1), 39–45.


Mary Dunne, Health Research Board, Ireland
Mary Dunne

Mary Dunne is an Information Officer in the National Documentation Centre on Drug Use. This is a specialist information resource for those researching and working in the area of drug or alcohol use, and is based within the Health Research Board, Dublin. Mary has a Masters in Psychology and a Masters in Information and Library Studies (Distinction). In 2011 she was awarded the Aberystwyth University Faculty of Social Studies Distance Learning Master's Prize.



Carrot or stick? Persuading academic staff of the benefits of using an Open Access Institutional Repository

Objective
To demonstrate how the University of Salford Library has engaged with academic staff using both promotional tools, and an institutional mandate, to encourage the use of the institutional repository (USIR), promote Open Access and increase the visibility of Salford research output.

Methods
Engagement tools have been used, such as statistics reports, promotion through inductions, Open Access celebratory events, and inclusion of USIR within the PGCert for all teaching staff. By gathering download statistics and feedback from users, it can be shown how the use of these tools has increased our academic staff’s awareness and use of USIR. The poster will show both the ways in which these tools are implemented at Salford, and their effectiveness.

Results
Quotations and summaries of feedback will be presented to demonstrate academic staff’s attitude to USIR and Open Access, and graphs and charts will be presented to show the increase in use of the repository since we have implemented both the Open Access mandate and the promotional tools.

Conclusion
The conclusion of our poster will show that marketing of an institutional repository is an ongoing process, and that the most effective approach to persuading academic staff to use and engage with an Open Access institutional repository is a combination of both a 'carrot' (promotion) and 'stick' (mandate) approach.


Sue Slade, University of Salford, United Kingdom

Awaiting information


Karen Bates, University of Salford, United Kingdom

Awaiting information



Clinical query services from the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

Objective
To find out if the clinical query service provided by the library at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists is meeting the needs of College Members, and if any changes to the way the service is delivered are needed.

Methods
A survey of all RCOG Fellows and Members who submitted clinical queries was conducted over a period of six months. To collect more data, the survey was simultaneously placed on the query bank of previously answered questions on the College website. These answers are open to anyone.
Characteristics of queries answered in the last three years were also analysed.

Results
Most data was collected from people viewing previously answered questions on the website. Not all respondents completed the questionnaire, and so statistical analysis is of limited use. About two thirds of respondents were Members or Trainees of the College.
The information was mostly sought to guide the treatment of a particular individual. After this, continuing professional development was the most commonly cited reason. Almost all respondents said that the reply answered or partially answered their question. Where questions were only partially answered, it was often the case that a Cochrane review had concluded there was not enough evidence on this topic, or that the respondent's question was slightly different to the one that had been answered.
The most frequently reported immediate impact of the information supplied was that it refreshed the clinicians memory of facts and information. The most frequently reported effect on future clinical decisions was revision of the treatment plan. About half of the respondents felt the value of the answers would be increased if they were subject to the same editorial or review processes as RCOG guidelines or approved by the RCOG Standards Board. No comments were made about the time since searches were undertaken.
The service currently offers a standard response time of three days however, the research showed that users would value a choice between 1 day and 7 days.
Approximately half said they would use the service again.

Conclusion
The clinical query service is only used by a small proportion of its target audience, however almost all respondents said that the reply answered or partially answered their question, and approximately half said they would use the service again. A process of editorial review or RCOG Standards Board approval would increase the value of the service to users. Offering a flexible response time may enable us to answer some queries more quickly.


Elaine Garrett, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, United Kingdom
Elaine Garrett

Elaine Garrett is Reader Services Librarian at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. She has worked in medical libraries for 15 years, mainly in enquiry service roles. She has previously worked at the Department of Health and what is now the Health Protection Agency. Her current post is mainly enquiry based, including a clinical query answering service, alongside literature searching for College guidelines.


Lucy Reid, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, United Kingdom
Lucy Reid

Lucy is Head of Information Services at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. She has 15 years’ experience of delivering health information in a range of environments. Lucy currently leads a multidisciplinary team of information professionals delivering information and knowledge services to the staff, membership and other stakeholders of an international professional body.



Collaboration between nurses and librarians in promoting evidence based practice: librarian's role in nursing research council

Objective
Kuopio University Hospital (KUH) Nursing Research Council's (NRC) objective is to increase evidence-based nursing practice in KUH. NRC aims to make nursing science and other health science research visible in the hospital district, to make evidence-based nursing a living and continuous practice in KUH, and to organize evidence-based nursing education, also regionally.
The Kuopio University Hospital (KUH) Medical Library provides tailored library services for KUH staff, including training sessions on library resources and assistance in information retrieval (IR).

Methods
NRC membership is based on voluntary interest to promote nursing research and evidence-based practice in Kuopio University Hospital. The 12 members come from different nursing specialities and teaching staff and from the Department of Nursing Science in the University of Eastern Finland. Also KUH Medical Library's Head of Services is a member of the Council. NRC is not a decision-making body but conversational and brainstorming.

Results
NRC has supported nursing practice e.g. by offering a forum for new ideas and organizing joint meetings of KUH staff with masters, licentiate and doctoral degree. The first meeting was organized in February 2009. The second joint meeting, where also IR was a topic among others, took place in May 2010.
Regular nursing meetings started in October 2009 and by December 2010 there have been 12 meetings with subjects ranging from the history of pandemics to bullying at workplace. Five nursing meetings have been scheduled for spring term 2011. Feedback of the sessions has been very positive.
Promoting evidence-based nursing practice has been considered one of most important tasks of the Council. The first extensive training program on EBN, using blended learning methods, for KUH nursing staff was organized October 2009 to December 2010, ending with a conference open to all. Lectures and training sessions on IR were an essential part of the program. In September 2010 began a regional training program on evidence-based leadership which also includes education on IR.

Conclusion
Cooperation between developers of nursing research and practice, such as NRC, and hospital library staff is important in promoting EBN by education and meetings. NRC is a common forum for getting to know each other's competencies and finding new ways of collaboration, sharing best practices, and developing better health care services.


Tuulevi Ovaska, University of Eastern Finland/Kuopio University Hospital, Finland
Tuulevi Ovaska

I am Head of Services in the Kuopio University Hospital Medical Library, University of Eastern Finland Library. I have been a librarian since 1990 (MA, University of Tampere, Finland), and medical librarian since 2003. I am the chairperson of Bibliothecarii Medicinae Fenniae (BMF), a Board Member of the European Association for Health Information and Libraries (EAHIL) and a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of EAHIL. I belong to the IPC of the 13th EAHIL Conference, Belgium, 2012. My interests include promoting professional development, advancing horizontal career development, marketing libraries and information services, and social media in libraries.


Tarja Kvist, University of Eastern Finland, Finland
Tarja Kvist

Tarja Kvist


Tarja Tervo-Heikkinen, Kuopio University Hospital, Finland
Tarja Tervo-Heikkinen

Tarja Tervo-Heikkinen



Defining a new role: the embedded research information manager

Objective
This was a JISC funded pathfinder project that sought to define the need, explore the benefits and risks, and evaluate the approaches for establishing a dedicated information specialist embedded within a multidisciplinary research team – a Research Information Manager (RIM). This role would seek to improve the management and flow of information and data across the research lifecycle in order to reduce duplication of effort, improve efficiency across the research team and maximise the value extracted from research outputs. The project was undertaken by the British Library in partnership with the Accessibility Research Group (ARG); established by Prof Nick Tyler at University College London (UCL).

Methods
The project comprised three phases.
Phase 1 captured ARG information/data needs and practices throughout the research lifecycle via a series of in-depth structured interviews and focus groups. Key institutional stakeholders such as research managers, administrators, ICT service providers, repository administration and library support were interviewed to assess gaps in institutional research support.
Phase 2 used desk and web research to identify existing models of good practice that mapped to the context-specific information requirements of the ARG.
Phase 3 delivered a report evaluating the approaches taken, recommending the requirements for successful establishment of the role within the ARG and setting out the key findings for the broader HE research community.

Results
The project captured a holistic view of the way that multidisciplinary researchers, represented by ARG, undertake and manage their research projects. This provides a useful insight into their attitudes, motivations, behaviours and the challenges they face throughout this process.
The study also identified the topic of data as the single greatest cause for concern for ARG researchers, and the area most lacking in the institutional advice, training, support and guidance required – this was identified a vital role that a RIM could fulfill.
The RIM skill set required to support ARG was defined to include; discipline specific knowledge, data management expertise, an understanding of the research culture and working practices, information literacy skills, as well as strong interpersonal and relationship building skills to enable exchange of tacit knowledge across the team and effective liaison with existing institutional support services.
Wider consultation across the UK HE sector and internationally indicates that many of the information management challenges identified for ARG are common and as such the project outlines a role that could be adapted and refined for implementation in a variety of contexts.

Conclusion
This report has highlighted a number of sector wide issues, including a need for a comprehensive review and integration of researcher training, skills, and research information systems and services across the sector. It is crucial, given the current financial landscape and implications of the Comprehensive spending review on the Higher Education sector, that this wider dialogue now take place on the ways in which integrated systems, services and roles can facilitate the management of complex flows of information, both into and out of the research process. Intervention in the form of RIM roles would be one strand of activity that could help in connecting the dispersed research information and data management across HEIs.


Karen Walshe, The British Library, United Kingdom

Awaiting information



Effect of environmental factors on undergraduates' use of federal university libraries in Nigeria: comparative contributions of noise, physical facilities and ventilation

Objective
The objectives of the study are to:
i. investigate the effect of noise, physical facilities and ventilation to undergraduate students’ use of federal university libraries in Nigeria;
ii. find out which of the environmental factors made greatest contribution to undergraduate students’ use of federal university libraries in Nigeria;
iii. identify ways of improving the environmental factors of federal university libraries in Nigeria.

Methods
The descriptive survey research was adopted to collect data for the study. Purposive sampling technique was adopted to select the universities to be studied. Two universities were stratified according to the period they were established. The main instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage tabulation were used in analyzing the data. The university librarians of the universities selected for the study were interviewed to find out the physical facilities available in their libraries. Observation technique was also adopted in the study in order to see the available physical facilities and find out the level of noise and ventilation in the university libraries.

Results
Results showed that environmental factors have significant effect on undergraduate students' use of university libraries and also revealed that noise made the greatest contribution which is significant to undergraduate students’ use of the university libraries in Nigeria.

Conclusion
The study concluded that for effective use of library to be achieved by the undergraduate students the environmental factors such as noise – free areas, adequate physical facilities and good level of ventilation should be available in order to attract the undergraduate students to use the federal university libraries in Nigeria. This would go a long way to assist the students achieve their educational objectives in the university system.


Georgina U. Oyedum, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
Georgina U. Oyedum

Georgina U. Oyedum is a Principal Librarian at the Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria where she has worked as a Cataloguer, Indexer, Reference Librarian and is presently a Circulation Librarian and Coordinator of Use of Library course in the University. She is certified by Librarians’ Registration Council of Nigeria (LRCN) to practise as a Chartered Librarian. Georgina obtained her first and second degrees in Library Science from Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria between 1988 and 1992, and is currently a doctoral student in the Department of Library, Archival and Information Studies (LARIS), University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Her wealth of experience in Librarianship has enabled her to write some textbooks in Library Science. She has also published many articles in educational and professional journals.
Georgina Oyedum is married (with children) to Dr. O. D. Oyedum, an Associate Professor in Physics Department of Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.



Evaluation of an evidence-based scholarly communication conference focused on support of translational investigators using a prospective longitudinal cohort design

Objective
To determine if the [Name of conference blocked for peer-review] would have both immediate and long-term effects on participants' attitudes, skills training, and advocacy actions in support of open access publication by translational investigators.

Methods
We employed a prospective longitudinal cohort design which sought to compare participants' (population) attitudes towards the conference skills and advocacy training (exposure) with outcomes. The evaluation consisted of one pre-conference and two post-conference web-based surveys completed anonymously. Confirmed registrants received the pre-conference survey two weeks before the conference convened. Attendees completed post-conference surveys one and six months after the conference. The organizers sought no on-site conference evaluation.

Results
A total of 46 people from 25 unique institutions attended the conference. Thirty-three (72%) registrants, excluding all organizers and speakers, completed the pre-conference survey and 23 (50%) and 11 (24%) completed the one month and six month post-conference surveys respectively.

Attendees gave the conference high marks for speakers and topics. Participants reported an increased confidence to successfully promote scholarly communication topics at their local institution. Although confidence increased few have taken further steps at their local institution. Most feel that a national organization should take on the organizational and advocacy role for this topic. The conference was seen as a novel opportunity to share best practices and learning from each other.

Conclusion
The prospective longitudinal cohort design is an effective methodology to determine attendee perceptions and the impact over time as well as evaluating whether attendees took action based on the conference content or experiences.


Philip Kroth, University of New Mexico, United States

Philip J. Kroth, MD, MS is the director of biomedical informatics research, training and scholarship at the University of New Mexico (UNM) Health Sciences Library and Informatics Center (HSLIC). A board certified, practicing physician and biomedical informatics investigator, his job at UNM collocated him with the medical librarian faculty at HSLIC. Unexpectedly, he developed an interest in research on scholarly communication issues. Dr. Kroth was the principal investigator on a National Library of Medicine Grant that funded a 2010 national conference on the research and promotion of open access publication in the translational investigator community.


Holly Philips, University of New Mexico, United States

Awaiting information


Jonathan Eldredge, University of New Mexico, United States

Awaiting information



Evidence based library and information science in the Iranian LIS schools curricula

Objective
It is about two decades that medical librarians have been involved in Evidence based medicine by teaching evidence based information retrieval to health providers and faculty members, providing evidence based information to physicians and patients, and development of evidence based consultation system. Now librarians incorporate an evidence based approach in their practice more for their own professional development rather than as a service for users. But, EBLIP is not only searching for evidence and assessing the relevance and accuracy of information. To practice EBL systematically, librarians need to be trained fully about the research methods, level of evidence and systematic reviews as well. This calls the incorporation of EBA in general and EBL in particular in the curriculum of LIS education. This study aims at finding whether EBA, EBM, EBLIP are incorporated in LIS education Curricula in Iran.

Methods
This study is an explanatory study. It uses content analysis to examine the syllabus of LIS education in Medical and non medical setting. As the syllabus of LIS education has been coordinated and synchronized through out the country, the examination of all LIS schools syllabuses is not essential. Therefore to examine the syllabuses of LIS Schools under Ministry of Science and Technology, University of Tabriz and to examine the LIS schools under the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tabriz University of Medical Science were selected through a selective sampling method. A simple frequency and descriptive statistics used for analyzing data.

Results
The study reveled that none of the concepts EBLIP, EBA and EBM have been incorporated in LIS education curriculum, formally. But the EBM was observed in the syllabus of LIS education Under Ministry of Health and Medical Education within the course “reference materials”. It is suggested to develop online courses and in place workshops to introduce EBL to the students and professionals. It is also essential to propose the course t the council of lesson programming to include the EBL course in the curricula.

Conclusion
To combine the art of LIS practice with evidence and knowledge the librarians have to be trained systematically and basically to use evidence based approach in their daily practice. To achieve to evidence based practice the skills and concepts need to be incorporated in LIS education formally.


Vahideh Zarea Gavgani, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran

Awaiting information



Factors affecting student learning outcomes of information literacy instruction

Objective
To identify ways to improve student learning outcomes of information literacy instruction (ILI) given by librarians from evidence directly obtained from receivers of that instruction. ILI is teaching people to recognize when information is needed, and how to locate, evaluate and use that information effectively. Student learning outcomes consist of behavioural, psychological, and benefit outcomes. Behavioural outcomes are changes in action (e.g., improved and increased use of online library resources). Psychological outcomes are changes in attitudes or values (e.g., decreased anxiety using online library resources; improved perceptions of online library resources). Benefit outcomes are positive outcomes of receiving ILI (e.g., time savings; higher grades). Specifically, the effects of student demographics (e.g., gender, year in program) and information literacy program components (e.g., the type of skills taught, the amount of active vs. passive instruction received) on student behavioural, psychological, and benefit outcomes are examined. The goal is to collect and analyze evidence from the field to yield recommendations for practice and suggest future research directions.

Methods
A survey was administered to full-time undergraduate business students at a medium-sized Canadian university. To encourage recruitment, survey respondents were eligible to participate in a draw for 100 $50 gift certificates at the local campus bookstore. In total, 409 students completed the survey (a 20% participation rate). Of these, 372 surveys were deemed usable for further analysis. Questions on the survey polled aspects of information literacy components, student demographics, and student learning outcomes. Prior to administration, survey items were face-validated by members of the research team and 30 volunteers, and modified accordingly over several iterations of review. Analysis of the survey data involved the use of MANOVA and structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques.

Results
The MANOVA work revealed that the greater the time spent in the undergraduate program and the greater the amount of active instruction received, the better the student learning outcomes. Specifically, these consisted of improved use of librarians, decreased anxiety and increased self-efficacy using online library resources, improved perceptions of librarians as being more helpful and valuable, and efficiency gains in time savings and a reduction in effort finding information.
The SEM work indicated that active instruction (not passive) directly promoted decreased anxiety and increased self-efficacy using online library resources, and indirectly encouraged online library resources use via improved perceptions of the usefulness and ease of use of these resources.

Conclusion
Providers of information literacy instruction should concentrate on giving instruction that is active in nature (e.g., the use of hands-on, interactive training), as opposed to instruction that is passive (e.g., lectures, demonstrations). Doing so yields positive student learning outcomes. Future research in this area should investigate what balance of active and passive ILI is best, and what types of active instruction are most beneficial.
Though more senior (i.e., older) students were found to achieve greater positive student learning outcomes from ILI, this finding may be a result of the nature of the assignments students are asked to do in their senior years or the greater maturity of the students. More research in this area is needed to unravel these confounding effects.


Brian Detlor, McMaster University, Canada
Brian Detlor

Brian Detlor is an Associate Professor of Information Systems at the DeGroote School of Business at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. He has research interests in information literacy, community informatics, and electronic government. In 2011, he co-authored the second Canadian edition of his textbook entitled "Business Driven Information Systems" published by McGraw-Hill Ryerson which he uses to teach in one of his introductory information systems courses. Dr. Detlor is an advocate of promoting digital literacy to all and ensuring his students require both the necessary information and technology skills to succeed in today's digital economy.


Heidi Julien, University of Alberta, Canada
Heidi Julien

Dr. Heidi Julien is a Professor in the School of Library and Information Studies, University of Alberta. Heidi has a Bachelor of Education and Master of Library and Information Studies from the University of Alberta, and a Ph.D. from the University of Western Ontario. Previously, she held academic appointments at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Canada, and at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. Her research interests include human information behaviour, information literacy, and information policy; this work is funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.

Alexander Serenko, Lakehead University, Canada

Alexander Serenko

Lorne Booker, McMaster University, Canada

Lorne Booker



Improving encounters of the customer kind!

Objective
The objective of the project was to create and evaluate a continuing professional development program in which staff at the Karolinska Institutet University Library (KIB) developed professional customer encounter knowledge and skills.

Methods
During 2010, customer service staff at KIB (approximately 50 of 120) were exposed to several different methods in a continuing professional development effort to develop the custom encounter experience. Methods were obtained from colleagues, consulting experts and reading the literature. The project was carried out in collaboration with another academic library and a public library in the Stockholm (Sweden) area.
The methods included: writing and reflecting in a blog about good and bad service experienced in everyday life; testing the effect of introducing small behavioural changes into the service exchange (for example, always being first to say hello to the customer); listening to and discussing an inspirational lecture on good customer service from a consultant outside the library branch; holding discussion clubs on chosen texts about the customer encounter (1); training by using rollplay; developmenting a set of guidelines concerning the customer encounter (using Appreciative Inquiry (2)); and finally, using collegial observational feedback (1, 3).
Different methods were chosen in order to appeal to the different learning styles of the staff and creat a Community of Practice with a common language and understanding about the issues.
Staff were encouraged to evaluate and reflect on the impact of each method.

Results
The project will finish in the spring of 2011 and therefore some of the methods have not been tested as yet.
Preliminarily, the project has created a lot of postive interest and engagement among the customer services staff and that interest has spread to other parts of the library.
Reflections on some of the methods will also be obtained from the other libraries involved in the project.
The results of the project will be ready for the EBLIP6 Conference.

Conclusion
It is predicted that an educational toolbox for developing the customer encounter experience will be developed and made publically available through the project. In the longer term, a customer survey will reveal the true impact of the project; especially in comparison to the pre-project survey.
1. Aleman L. [One more step! [Electronic resouce] : a book of methods for library development]. Ett steg till [Elektronisk resurs] : en metodbok för biblioteksutveckling : Tvinningprojektets slutrapport. Stockholm: Regionbibliotek Stockholm; 2009.
2. Andrus C. Using appreciative inquiry to build organizational capacity to learn, risk and grow. Revista De Cercetare Si Interventie Sociala 2010 Sep;30:63-76.
3. Øiestad G, Trägårdh E. Feedback. 1. uppl. ed. Malmö: Liber; 2005.


Saga Pohjola-Ahlin, Karolinska Institutet University Library, Sweden
Saga Pohjola-Ahlin

Saga has worked as a librarian at the University Library at Karolinska Institutet, one of Europe's leading medical universities, since 1998. Saga is responsible for coordinating and developing the face-to-face customer services in the library, and is currently also coordinating a project, run together with two other libraries in the Stockholm area, with the objective to provide evidence on best methods for customer services training. Saga holds a Master degree in Library and Information Science, from the University of Borås.


Sara Janzen, Karolinska Institutet University Library, Sweden
Sara Janzen

Sara has worked as a librarian at the University Library at Karolinska Institutet, one of Europe's leading medical universities, since 2008. Sara is mainly involved in customer services, answering questions from our customers both at the information desk as well as virtually through chat, e-mail and telephone. She's also a web editor for the library website (http://ki.se/lib), and took the part of co-chair on the Local Organizing Committee for the EBLIP5 Conference in Stockholm, Sweden in 2009. Sara holds a Master degree in Library and Information Science from Umeå University, Sweden.



Information needs for re-integration of prisoners: a case study of Agodi Prison, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

Objective
Prison inmates are those who for one reason or the other are regarded to have violated the laws of the land and have been found guilty by a competent court of law established by the government. The prison is supposed to be a place for the reformation and rehabilitation of persons who went contrary to what the society expected of them. This study sought to establish information needs of prison inmates, the level of access to information for re-integration by prison inmates, whether the accessible re-integration information meets the information needs of the prison inmates and the gender difference in the access to information.

Methods
This study was conducted among the prison inmates of Agodi Prison, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The already pre-tested questionnaire included both closed and open ended questions. The population for the study was made up of a sampled population of adult male and female prison inmates of the Agodi prison in Ibadan. A total of fifty copies of the questionnaires designed for this study were distributed as follows: one copy of the questionnaires was given to the Agodi Prison authorities, while the remaining copies were distributed among the inmates. All the 49 copies were retrieved back given a total of 100% returns. The SPSS data analyses software was use to analyse the data and the percentages generated were used for data interpretation.

Results
The study shows that 59.2% of the inmates in Agodi prison were males. 67.4% of the prisoners were primary school and school certificate holders while 4% were M.Sc./PhD holders. 49% of the respondents had access to information that meets their personal needs to cope with life outside the prison while 8.2% had no access to information that meets their personal needs. 24.5% of the inmates had information on the type of jobs available for them when they leave the prison while 20.4% of the inmates had no access to the type of jobs available to them when they leave the prison. 38.8% of the respondents had access to information on how to cope with stigmatization and complex problems. 32.7% agreed that the information they were provided with will help in meeting their educational needs.

Conclusion
It can be concluded that the prisoners in Agodi Prison are provided with information that will enhance their re-integration into the society. The information available to the prisoners is not gender based. They were also provided with necessary information for their rehabilitation which will make them useful to themselves and the society when they leave the prison.


Adeagbo Omobolade Opeyemi, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria
Adeagbo Omobolade Opeyemi

Omobolade Opeyemi Adeagbo is a citizen of Nigeria and a graduate of Industrial Chemistry, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, North Central of Nigeria. She bagged her Masters in Library and Information Studies from the University of Ibadan, Ibadan, South West of Nigeria.
She is currently a Reference Librarian in Hezekiah Oluwasanmi Library, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ife and she has attended several local and international conferences. Omobolade is presently residing in Ile-Ife, Osun State with her husband and their children. Her hobbies are singing, reading and interacting with people.



Information-seeking behavior of library users: a preliminary experiment using RFID technology

Objective
The purpose of this study is to examine the usability of the survey method using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology to understand the information-seeking behavior of library users. This paper discusses the usability of this method on the basis of the results of a preliminary experiment on the acquired data.

Methods
Three undergraduate students were assigned two types of information-seeking tasks: finding factual information (fact-task) and finding information sources related to various topics (topic-task). Subjects carried a reader/writer with them and explored information sources to complete these tasks in the reading room of a university library.
Passive RFID tags were placed on pillars and shelves so that reader/writer received radio waves wherever it was in the reading room. The reader/writer stored each tag's ID number and the exploration time. The collected ID numbers and recorded time reflected of the subjects' movement in the library. These data were analyzed from four aspects: track of subjects, time to explore each area, time taken to use primary and secondary sources, and time taken to use information sources by the Nippon Decimal Classification (NDC).

Results
1) Track of subjects
The tags’ ID numbers were linked with five areas in the reading room: the “circulation area,” “OPAC area,” “database area,” “reference book area,” and “book and journal area.” It was found that almost all subjects started from the OPAC area and moved between the OPAC area and other areas.
2) Time taken to explore each area
We aggregated the exploration time in each of the abovementioned areas. The exploration time in the “book and journal area” during the performance of the fact-task was 37% of the total exploration time and that during the performance of the topic-task was 54% of the total exploration time. Therefore, the exploration time for the “book and journal area” was the longest among all areas.
3) Time taken to use primary and secondary sources
The tags' ID numbers were linked with two different kinds of information sources: primary and secondary sources. The percentage of time spent on the secondary sources was higher than that of on the primary sources during the performance of the fact-task or topic-task.
4) Time taken to use information sources by NDC
The tags' ID numbers were linked with the NDC class number. It was suggested that patterns of information sources by each task were similar.

Conclusion
The experiment demonstrated that this method provides beneficial results to understand the information-seeking behavior of library users. The most remarkable feature of this method was that it precisely calculated time, making it possible to follow users' behaviors by second. Furthermore, this method did not prevent other users from using the library or invade their privacy.
We conclude that gathering a considerably larger amount of data will enable us to explore the patterns of users' behavior with regard to the kind of information sources they access, the time they take to explore sources, and the order in which they explore.


Noriko Sugie, Surugadai University, Japan
Noriko Sugie

Noriko Sugie is an Associate Professor with the Faculty of Media and Information Resources, Surugadai University, Saitama, Japan. She received her MLIS degree from the Department of Library and Information Science, Aichi Shukutoku University, Aichi in 2000, and took the PhD course offered by the School of Library and Information Science, Keio University in 2000-2003. Her research interests include reference service in public libraries, and library usersf information seeking behavior. At present, she is exploring for methods to collect data on library users by radio techniques like RFID.



Innovative evidence based practice outside work

Objective
This poster aims to:
• Highlight practical evidence-based strategies which library and information ‘professionals’ could use outside work in their own continuing professional development (CPD);
• Identify issues and potential problems with conceiving of evidence-based practice outside a professional environment.

Methods
The poster will:
• Review existing literature on the theme of innovative evidence-based practice, particularly outside work and when unemployed;
• Present practical and applicable methods which use evidence-based practice outside formal professional settings: - The process of maintaining logs of job applications (and levels of success with each one) can reveal areas which a professional is weak in, and help to focus in on skills areas that may need further development.
- Reflection on job interview experiences, and reflecting on feedback from interviews, is more detailed way in which to carry out a ‘gap analysis’ of weak areas, and identify ways to improve these.
- Both strategies can be supported by maintaining a ‘skills audit’, which particularly useful in library and information work, with a wide range of skills demanded in different sectors and roles.
• Draw parallels with evidence-based analyses like gap analysis and root cause analysis. This is shown in the way that learning logs and reflections are evidence-based strategies to identify and respond to failure or mistakes;
• Identify problems with the form of evidence-based practice presented in the poster. The researcher will highlight the reliability of evidence-based practice which is carried out without the involvement of third parties, and how far there is continuity between evidence-based practice outside work and within work.

Results
The literature review found:
• learning logs are a valid evidence-based tool to support CPD, and that LIS staff have a strong commitment to an entrepreneurial approach to CPD (Barclay, 1996; Gray, 2009; Doney, 1998);
• evidence of large-scale schemes which focus on enhancing employability for those out of work (e.g. Lindsay et al, 2007);
• evidence suggesting that organisational and ‘personal’ development’ are very different processes (Blau et al).
The form of evidence-based practice proposed in this poster has particular challenges:
• The strategies can potentially redefine the concept of ‘practice’, particularly challenging the notion of ‘practice’ being inherently linked to an employment setting;
• This also presents difficulties for the notion of evidence-based CPD, and raises the question as to whether this can be self-administered or needs the help of third parties like line managers or ‘coaches’;
• Other problems include the level of motivation professionals might have to engage in this type of activity, and whether evidence used in learning logs and reflections can have a demonstrable impact.

Conclusion
This poster has relevance to:
• Professionals who work in increasingly diverse sectors, where the application of evidence-based practice can vary immensely, particularly with reference to CPD.
• Unemployed professionals, and to those currently in the process of applying for positions.
Innovative evidence-based practice outside ‘practice’ highlights the value of using accurate and timely information to make well-founded decisions; a defining feature of evidence-based practice in library and information work.


Ray Harper, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
Ray Harper

After graduating from the University of Liverpool with a degree in English Literature, I worked as a Graduate Trainee Library Assistant at Emmanuel College (Cambridge). I then studied for a Masters in Librarianship at the University of Sheffield, where my dissertation investigated the effects of the economic downturn on university libraries. After this I worked as Knowledge Management Coordinator at CUREE and Information Services Officer at the NHS Information Centre. I currently work as Planning Officer at the University of Sheffield, with responsibility for student numbers data, financial data and business planning, particularly in the Faculty of Medicine.



Innovative features to an evidence based practice conference: a program evaluation

Objective
To describe and offer program evaluations of several innovations related to an evidence-based practice conference. The authors leveraged an emerging trend of librarians serving translational scientists with a need for open access publishing advocacy by hosting this conference. Secondly, the authors introduced the innovation of real-time peer review into the research papers output. Finally the authors included a novel participatory advocacy workshop.

Methods
Specific program evaluation measures pertaining to these innovations included:
• Immediate and delayed conference attendee evaluations
• Participation levels in real-time peer review of contributed research papers
• Constructed knowledge from a unique participatory advocacy workshop

Results
Conference outcomes and attendee evaluations generally supported these innovations. Attendance exceeded the conference budget break-even point during a time when travel budgets were restricted. More than 60% of the conference attendees participated in the real-time peer review of research papers. All presenters incorporated the real-time peer review suggestions from participants into their final scholarly communications such as research articles in peer reviewed journals. Conference attendees evaluated the workshop highly. 55% agree and 45% somewhat agreed with the statement “Indicate your level of agreement that the content presented at the conference will be helpful with my efforts to promote the use of open-access publication at my institution for each of the following topics:” for this workshop specifically.

Conclusion
These innovations might enhance future conferences and other venues as evidenced by the outcome and evaluation measures.


Jonathan D. Eldredge, University of New Mexico, United States
Jonathan D. Eldredge

Jon Eldredge, MLS, PhD, has been fascinated with evidence-based practices for over twenty years. He was part of a team of faculty members two decades ago at the University of New Mexico who taught Evidence-Based Medicine. In 1997 Jon proposed practicing Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL) in Hypothesis. Jon then developed the Medical Library Association continuing education course on EBL in 1998. He published four articles on EBL during 2000 in order to encourage its adoption. About the same time he connected with similarly-minded colleagues such as Andrew Booth, Anne Brice, Denise Koufogiannakis and others. Together they established the international EBLIP movement.


Holly E. Phillips, University of New Mexico, United States

Awaiting information


Philip J. Kroth, University of New Mexico, United States

Philip J. Kroth, MD, MS is the director of biomedical informatics research, training and scholarship at the University of New Mexico (UNM) Health Sciences Library and Informatics Center (HSLIC). A board certified, practicing physician and biomedical informatics investigator, his job at UNM collocated him with the medical librarian faculty at HSLIC. Unexpectedly, he developed an interest in research on scholarly communication issues. Dr. Kroth was the principal investigator on a National Library of Medicine Grant that funded a 2010 national conference on the research and promotion of open access publication in the translational investigator community.



Scoping PhD candidates’ interaction with information

Objective
This poster presents a broad literature review about PhD candidates interaction with information divided into three main areas of interests for libraries in higher education:
1. Information behaviour and information use
2. Library services and teaching
3. Knowledge of various aspects in writing and publishing.
The literature review forms a valuable evidence base for the libraries’ services catered for PhD candidates. Based on the findings educational content will be developed.

Methods
The literature review followed a scoping review methodology. Systematic searches were performed to scan the corpus of literature in order to identify relevant and high-quality studies of interest. References were selected according to inclusion criteria. After initial reading only studies with high scores for both research quality and relevance were included for further investigation.
A defined set of inclusion criteria lead to a set of approximately 60 references. Findings in the three subfields are coherent and may so far be summarized as follows:
• As a starting point of inquiry, researchers favour simple Google-searching.
• PhD candidates meet unclear expectations in regard to research performance and skills.
• There is a tendency to regard the PhD candidate’s information skills and information literacy as deficient. However, the candidates themselves seem to feel confident, but indicate a lack of advanced skills in information management.
• The information behaviour differs within different research groups and disciplines.
• PhD candidates’ citation practice indicates a major use towards freely available online sources and a declining use of printed material, partly missing authoritative sources. In addition, in-text acknowledgements and the reference list lack precision. These findings indicate that the candidates still need to further their scholarly experiences and skills.
• Citation metrics may support a critical evaluation and make research structures visible.
• Citation metrics have become easily available and influence the publishing behaviour.

Conclusion
The scoping review turned out to be a useful method to gain an overview of the existing research literature on PhD candidates' interaction with information. Apart from some deficits of the method, the findings support our decision to develop educational materials for PhD candidates in the project Information management for Knowledge creation.
The literature review indicate that Phd candidates knowledge and skills in information behavior and information use changes throughout the research process. There is a potential to increase Phd candidates positive contribution to their scientific fields. Library teaching for Phd candidates ought to take into consideration Phd candidates previous knowledge and topics should include a broad understanding of the research process.


Therese Skaagen,University of Oslo Library, Norway

Therese Skagen is section manager at Library of Medicine and Health Sciences at University of Oslo. Her responsibilities is to promote information literacy and evidence-based medicine among students and staff. Previous, she worked as an academic librarian at Bergen University Library. She holds an MA degree in Psychology from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. She has participated in the University Library's pedagogical development projects.


Susanne Mikki, University of Bergen Library, Norway

Susanne Mikki works as a senior academic librarian at the University of Bergen Library, Norway. She holds a PhD in physical oceanography. The last years she has been involved in teaching and developing information literacy programs. Her research area includes bibliometrics and research statistics.


Gunhild Austrheim, Bergen University College Library, Norway

Awaiting information


Kirsten B. Haraldsen, University of Oslo Library, Norway

Awaiting information


Hege Folkestad, University of Bergen Library, Norway

Awaiting information


Gisela Attinger, University of Oslo Library, Norway

Awaiting information



The application of EBLIP model for analyzing users’ information-seeking behaviour in using medical e-journals (IRANMEDEX Database): Bushehr University of Medical Sciences

Objective
In recent years, the development of e-journals lead to need in analyzing the users' information-seeking behavior in digital environment. The aim of this research is to apply EBLIP model for proposing method which suggests the best analysis of users’ information-seeking behavior in digital environment.

Methods
By using EBLIP model, first we mentioned an accurate definition of the subject. Then, on the basis of this problem, the existing evidences were collected and integrated method of Log Analysis and interview adopted. Log files of users' usability in one semester (4 months) were recorded. Finally, we investigated log files of each user and interviewing with them simultaneously. Collected data were analyzed by using descriptive and analytical statistics tests.

Results
The findings show that majority of users have been used simple search in IRANMEDEX database for information retrieval. They expressed that lack of familiarity with search skills and database facilities was the main reason of using this kind of search. Also, there was a direct relationship between the search frequencies - per work session by each user- and the mean of used keywords frequencies as well as download frequencies and the level of users' skills for information retrieval. According to users' responds, the main reason of visiting database was to perform their assignments and projects.

Conclusion
In the whole, researchers use Log analysis method for studying users’ information-seeking behavior. In this method, data collection is separated from users and all of the users’ tasks are not reflect in log files. Also, the impossibility to study users' skills level in information retrieval and the inability to recognize causal relations – e.g. cause of visit website, cause of study abstracts or full texts of articles, and so on- cause that we cannot examine the users' information-seeking behavior properly. But by applying interview techniques in the period of analyzing log files we can achieve to a better recognition about users’ information-seeking behavior in digital environment.


Leila Dehghani, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran
Leila_Dehghani

Leila Dehghani (MA in Library and Information Science) received her master of degree in library and information science in 2005 from Shiraz University. She worked in Regional Information Center for Science and Technology (RICeST) as a manager of periodical department from 2005 to 2006 – for about 2 years- and from 2006 till now, she has been teaching in medical library and information science (Bushehr University of Medical Sciences) as a faculty member. She was the manager of Central Library in Bushehr University of Medical Sciences from 2008-2010. Now, she is the manager of medical library and information science department. Her study areas are including databases management, information retrieval, scientometrics, and reference materials.


Mazyar Ganjoo, Islamic Azad University of Bushehr, Islamic Republic of Iran
Mazyar Ganjoo

Gillian Hallam


Reza Basirian Jahromi, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran
Reza Basirian Jahromi

Gillian Hallam


Mahasty Ganjoo, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran
Mahasty Ganjoo

Gillian Hallam



The role of the information professional as a researcher in a health promotion context: the case of a social marketing initiative

Objective
Recent library and information science (LIS) literature often stresses the importance for information professionals to apply their expertise, methods and work experience to contexts that are different from library settings, in today's knowledge society. Besides, continuous critical reflection on personal work experience is strongly encouraged, both as a method for professional development, and as a way of producing documents to be shared with the professional community for wider reflection and learning.The author has a background in library and information science and a decennial experience as a librarian. He then undertook PhD-level research at a prominent UK university in the field of health promotion, with the goal of analyzing a social marketing campaign aimed at increasing the awareness of stroke symptoms and related required actions in disadvantaged groups of the population. The research question was framed in terms of information- and knowledge-related processes, inquiring how and to what extent the social marketing campaign may be effective in bridging the gaps between the best evidence for stroke awareness available in the literature and the practical, effective knowledge about such a topic in the community, as its message flows through the social networks of which the community itself is composed.The present work aims at describing how an information professional is both challenged and allowed to learn and grow professionally when faced with a completely new context in which his previous knowledge and skills can be applied. Such a description will have two distinct, although related, aspects:
· a subjective side, implying the critical reflection of the author on his experience as an information professional both in the design and in the first data collection phase;
· a more objective side, in which the application of some information- and knowledge-related theories and methods have been applied outside a traditional library- and organization-related context, to be useful in a community-oriented setting.

Methods
Qualitative methods will be employed. A personal research journal and notes made by the author during or after fieldwork will be the main source of data, reflecting an auto-ethnographic approach. Data analysis and synthesis will then be carried out using a thematic analysis framework, and data will be collected and elaborated with the nVivo 8 software package for qualitative research.

Results
Expected results include the following:
· a critical account of the subjective, role-related experiences of an information professional as a researcher in a health promotion context;
· a critical reflection on the pro and contra of applying LIS methods to contexts different from libraries or organizations.

Conclusion
In a historical moment of challenging re-definition of the role of information professionals, the present work may provide useful insights and reflections on an attempt to extend traditional skills and knowledge of librarians to wider contexts of application.

References
Braun, V. & Clarke, V., 2006. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77-101.Lor, P.J. & Britz, J.J., 2007. Challenges of the Approaching Knowledge Society: Major International Issues Facing LIS Professionals. Libri: International Journal of Libraries & Information Services, 57(3), 111-122.McIlveen, P., 2008. Autoethnography as a method for reflexive research and practice in vocational psychology. Australian Journal of Career Development, 17(2), 13–20.Schon, D.A., 1984. The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action, Basic Books.


Paolo Gardois, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
Paolo Gardois

I have a BA in Philosophy at the University of Turin (Italy) and a MSc in International Information Studies at the Universities of Parma (Italy) and Northumbria (UK). I have worked as a librarian at the Pediatrics Department of the University of Turin, as head of digital services for libraries and as a knowledge management specialist in the same university.
I am currently working on a PhD project at the University of Sheffield, UK. I am studying the network-related information dynamics in social marketing initatives in the field of health promotion.



The use of APQC Process Classification Framework (PCF) model in libraries: a new contributor approach for EBL

Introduction
Evidence based librarianship (EBL) makes it possible to solve problems using of the best research evidences and reflects the results for decision making in the future. In spite of all the advantages of EBL, however there are challenging problems in conducting researches in this field, so it is neccessary to find or use new approaches that can be useful in this area of study. An alternative is capturing management approaches from another fields such as business. The American productivity and quality center process classification framework as one of the best process-oriented models, allows organizations to see their activities from a cross- industry process view point. Regarding the ability of this model in benchmarking organizations processes, extracting the best practices, and classifying them from category to activity levels, it can be used in librarianship, specially EBL as well.

Objective
This article introduces the APQC process classification framework and explains it's structure to classify processes in two groups including operational and management and support processes. It proposes how PCF can contribute to EBL researchers as well.


Ameneh S. Taherian, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Islamic Republic of Iran
Ameneh S. Taherian

I’m Ameneh Sadat Taherian. I was born in 1981 in Iran, Isfahan, Baqbahadoran. After finishing the elementary and guidance levels, I was accepted in entrance test of one of the governmental excellent high schools of Isfahan province and I completed this level in the mathematics discipline. I entered into Isfahan university in 2000 as a Library and information science student. Then I continued my study as a LIS MA student in Shiraz university in 2004. My dissertation was about “comparing the search paradigms from user’s points of views in google search engine” and was judged as a work with excellent degree. “user satisfaction with libraries” and “library anxiety of library users” were another subjects that I worked on them in this level. After finishing the MA level I have teached in university as a lecturer for 3 semesters. Finally I entered in Shahid Chamran university as a PhD student of LIS in 2009. Using the Process Classification Framework (PCF) Model in LIS area for first time, is my new idea in this level. I conducted some studies on mapping of science. In most of my works I have co-authors also.


Mortaza Kokabi, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Islamic Republic of Iran
Mortaza Kokabi

Mortaza



Library metrics for accreditation & institutional strategic goal setting

Objective
The purpose of this poster presentation is to demonstrate how a research library through ongoing applied research can effectively identify, create, manage and analyze a myriad of data sets in order to meet accrediting agencies’, federal, state, institution and its own organizational goals, outcomes and requirements.
Research libraries have a huge constituency that typically extends across dozens (hundreds?) of degree-granting disciplines, research facilities and administrative functions that a college or university encompasses. A library's mission must evidence how it successfully impacts all of the other university components efforts to create a successful learning and research environment.
With regard to compliance, in addition to state and federal guidelines, in the United States there are 7 regional accrediting organizations as well as 20+ programmatic accrediting organizations. Each has a requirement that the institution seeking accreditation must establish an ongoing institutional effectiveness plan (IEP). These IEPs ask that an institution and its components plan and document efforts to continuously improve its operations to meet learning, teaching and research missions.
Therefore, libraries acting as Customer-based organizations and as a matter of compliance, must track its efforts. Libraries need to collect and manage large sets of service and resource data to review, and improve, its effectiveness. Documenting how a Library meets each units', university/colleges', federal, state and accrediting agencies' requirements can be daunting.

Methods
By applying information system research methods this presentation will identify typical federal, state, accrediting agency and institutional guidelines that a research library must meet. Subsequently, using information assessment strategies, and using case studies, the presentation will document the development of data sets, analyses and reporting that must be undertaken to address these guidelines.

Results
Through the use of a graphic presentation that includes lists, tables, charts and mapping the results will demonstrate how a library can create and manage diverse data sets as well as coordinate how to effectively use these sets and subsequent analyses to meet of its own, its constituents', governmental and accrediting agency requirements.

Conclusion
As a Customer Service driven organization and a vital partner in a college or university's learning, teaching, research and administrative research missions, libraries must develop both the strategic and scheduled collection of and analyses of a vast array of data in order to measure (and report) its effectiveness and value.


Michael L. Maciel, Texas A&M University, United States
Michael L. Maciel

Michael


Esther Carrigan, Texas A&M University, United States
Esther Carrigan

Esther Carrigan



Understanding the needs of graduate biology students: reflections of an EBLIP newbie

Objective
This poster will explain a university sabbatical research plan that was set to the five steps of evidence-based library and information practice. The librarian's aim was to learn more about evidence-based practice while contributing to the research regarding the information needs of graduate biology students.

Methods
The researcher's question (Step One) was “Is the Library meeting the information needs of graduate biology students at Carleton University?” To find the evidence (Step Two), a mixed-methods approach was used which included an online survey, a citation analysis and a detailed literature review to establish future collection development and instruction decisions.

Results
Appraising the evidence (Step Three) indicates a need for more faculty endorsement of the library. Many graduate biology students surveyed had never been encouraged to take a library tour, seek a librarian’s assistance, or have a librarian visit their classroom. Although some students use electronic databases like Biological Sciences and Web of Science, most use Google Scholar to search for journal articles. Although graduate students were able to decipher citations in the online survey, there were significant numbers of incorrect/incomplete citations in graduate theses bibliographies. While rapid awareness is very important in their research, graduate students were not keeping up-to-date as efficiently as they could. Preliminary results of the comprehensive literature review reveal that research conducted since 2000 using biology students or faculty subjects is relatively evenly divided among four librarianship domains: Collections, Education, Information Access and Retrieval, and Reference. To apply the evidence (Step Four), more instructional workshops on subject-specific databases, rapid awareness tools and proper citation formatting (i.e. using bibliographic management software) are required. Instruction efforts will centre on graduate students and teaching assistants (graduate or undergraduate). Results will be presented to biology faculty in an effort to work together to meet graduate students' research needs. Collection development will focus on incomplete journal holdings by purchasing backfiles and revisiting cancelled subscriptions. Once actions have been implemented, evaluation of results (Step Five) will include feedback from faculty and graduate students through workshop assessments and interviews.

Conclusion
While Carleton University Library is meeting the collection needs of the graduate biology students, more work is needed with instruction. The librarian hopes to meet the graduate students' instructional needs by focusing on specific workshops that pinpoint useful tools for their research, and by collaborating with faculty to emphasize the importance of library services and collections. As librarian professionals, there is a responsibility to contribute to the evidence, but also to read and critique the current evidence to make informed decisions about one's daily work. Challenges in this research included asking the right questions, and completing the citation analysis and comprehensive literature review in a specific time period. Working in an academic environment, one has the advantage of accessing resources that can help to contribute to the evidence. There is a need for library directors to support research in finances and/or time outside of sabbaticals. This would help librarians contribute to the evidence in a timely manner despite being faced with other day-to-day work commitments.


Laura Newton Miller, Carleton University, Canada
Laura Newton Miller

Laura Newton Miller is a Science & Engineering Reference Librarian at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada. Her subject responsibilities include Biological Sciences, Health, Environmental Science, and Civil, Environmental and Biomedical Engineering. She earned a Master of Library and Information Science from University of Western Ontario (London, Ontario) and a Master of Education (Adult Education) from Mount Saint Vincent University in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Her research interests include incorporating the theories of evidence-based library and information practice into her studies of the information needs of science students, and of the emerging trends in open access and scholarly communication.



Using a professional continuing medical education simulation to engage undergraduate medical students in information literacy

Objective
1. To engage students by delivering an Evidence Based Medicine assignment in a system that simulates a professional medical continuing education system that many participants will use in residency and practice.
2. To convert a paper-based “searching for and evaluating evidence” assignment to an interactive electronic format, embedded in a course management system.

Methods
The College of Family Physicians of Canada's Pearls™ continuing medical education program was simplified for use by medical students beginning their Clinical Clerkship.
All of the students had completed a similar paper-based assignment within the previous two years. Students completed the interactive electronic assignment during class time. At the end of the session students were asked to complete an electronic survey which was designed to measure their preference for the paper or electronic delivery of the assignment and whether or not the delivery in the context of a continuing medical education program was engaging for them.

Results
Evidence gathered through the surveys showed that the students preferred the interactive electronic version of the assignment and that most of the students valued the introduction to the continuing medical education environment.

Conclusion
Based on this research, this program will be integrated further into the information literacy instruction of undergraduate medical students.


Sandy Campbell, University of Alberta, Canada
Sandy Campbell

Sandy Campbell is Public Services Librarian at the John W. Scott Health Sciences Library at the University of Alberta. She is a member of the Library Association of Alberta, the Canadian Library Association, the Canadian Health Libraries Association, and is an Associate Fellow of the Australian Library and Information Association. Sandy has published and presented on subjects related to library instruction and digital library services.


Dale Storie, University of Alberta, Canada
Dale Storie

Dale Storie is Public Services Librarian at the John W. Scott Health Sciences Library at the University of Alberta. He is a member of the Canadian Health Librarians Association, and the Medical Library Association. He has previously published or presented on blogging, gaming, information literacy, and digital preservation, and is also a copy editor for the EBLIP journal. He is interested generally in the application of new technologies to library services and instruction.


Brettany Johnson, University of Alberta, Canada

Awaiting content


Robert Hayward, University of Alberta, Canada

Awaiting content



Who does what? Creating an information seeking profile for nursing students

Objective
The aim is to improve the design and evaluation of information literacy programmes for nursing students.
The objective is to produce an information seeking behaviour (ISB) profile, or rather, sets of profiles, for nursing students. The research investigates how personality, self-efficacy, and learning style interact and affect the ISB of the student.
The research questions are:
Quantitative
What is the relationship between personality, self-efficacy, learning styles, and ISB?
What is the impact of differing personalities, self-efficacy levels, and/or learning styles on ISB?
Qualitative
Why do users search the way they do?
What are the preferred methods of information seeking?
Mixed
How do the qualitative data inform the development of the ISB profile?
What are the implications for practice?

Methods
Sample: One university in the UK, 194 nursing and midwifery students (undergraduate and postgraduate). For the qualitative research, 11 students from the 194, volunteered for interviews. The sample represents approximately 8% of the nursing and midwifery student population at that university.
The approach is mixed methods (concurrent embedded qualitative and quantitative methods) but predominately quantitative methods have been used.
Pre-validated research tools (Saucier's Mini-marker scale for personality, Kurbanoglu's information literacy self-efficacy scale, and Entwistle’s ASSIST for learning styles) were used in conjunction with questions on information behaviour based on Foster's non-linear information seeking model, which has three core processes of opening, orientation, and finishing.
The paper will focus on the results of the quantitative analysis comprising of Chi-square tests and Odds Ratios.
This part-time PhD studentship was granted ethical approval by Cambridgeshire 3 Research Ethics Committee, Faculty of Health and Social Care at Anglia Ruskin University, and the Research and Development departments of 13 local NHS organizations. It also benefited from funding by the Arts and Humanities Research Council.

Results
Students with a higher degree of confidence about their information literacy are more likely to: think about their search; work out strategies; and build and adapt their searches. They also tend to be younger, but are not necessarily the furthest along their course.
Deep learners take a broad, exploratory approach to searching and score highest for the Openness personality trait; whilst Strategic learners think about their search, adapt as they progress and score highest for Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability. Surface learners do less planning and are the most Extravert and least Conscientious. There is also a significant relationship (p=0.034) between high confidence (self-efficacy) and the Deep learning style, and lower confidence (self-efficacy) and the Strategic learning style.
Additionally, personality traits which are essentially stable over time are positively and negatively associated with various aspects of information seeking and less easy to change.

Conclusion
A sense of personal mastery with Information Literacy does not necessarily improve as students' progress through a course. Students with different Learning Styles and Personalities display different searching strategies.
One size information skills searching teaching does not fit all as some students may not benefit from traditional skills searching. In addition it cannot be assumed that students further into their course will be better at searching for information.


Peter Stokes, Anglia Ruskin University, United Kingdom
Peter Stokes

Employed as a librarian at Anglia Ruskin University in the UK, and nearing the end of a part-time PhD with Aberystwyth University under the supervision of Dr Christine Urquhart and Dr Allen Foster. He gained an MSc in Health Information Management from Aberystwyth in 2006, focussing on the usefulness of the content of online medical databases. Research interests revolve around the information seeking behaviour of nursing students and their access to information and resources. He took part in the Doctoral Workshop at ISIC 2008 outlining the proposed research as a poster at the conference and article in Information Research.